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Breast cancer: the influences you can or cannot change 

Despite the medical profession’s dedication to research and the constant hope of finding a cure, the causes of breast cancer are still not fully understood. This means it is difficult to say why one woman may develop the disease whilst another may not.

Some things, known as risk factors, can change the likelihood that someone may develop it. There are some factors you cannot do anything about. Others, you can change.

Age

The risk of developing breast cancer increases as you get older. It is most common among women over 50 who have been through the menopause. Eight out of ten cases of breast cancer occur in women over 50.

Family history

If you have close relatives who have had breast cancer or ovarian cancer, you may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. However, as breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, it is possible for it to occur more than once in the same family by chance.

Most breast cancer cases are not hereditary (they do not run in families). However, particular genes, known as BRCA1 and BRCA2, can increase your risk of developing both breast and ovarian cancer. It is possible for these genes to be passed on from a parent to their child. A third gene (TP53) is also associated with increased risk of breast cancer.

If you have, for example, two or more close relatives from the same side of your family (such as your mother, sister or daughter) who have had breast cancer under the age of 50, you may be eligible for surveillance for breast cancer or for genetic screening to look for the genes that make developing breast cancer more likely. If you are worried about your family history of breast cancer, discuss it with your GP.

Previous diagnosis of breast cancer

If you have previously had breast cancer or early non-invasive cancer cell changes contained within breast ducts, you have a higher risk of developing it again, either in your other breast or in the same breast again.

 

Previous benign breast lump

A benign breast lump does not mean you have breast cancer but certain types of lump may slightly increase your risk of developing it. Certain benign changes in your breast tissue, such as atypical ductal hyperplasia (cells growing abnormally in ducts) or lobular carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells inside your breast lobes) can make getting breast cancer more likely.

Breast density

Your breasts are made up of thousands of tiny glands (lobules) which produce milk. This glandular tissue contains a higher concentration of breast cells than other breast tissue, making it denser. Women with denser breast tissue may have a higher risk of developing breast cancer because there are more cells that can become cancerous.

Dense breast tissue can also make a breast scan (mammogram) harder to read because it makes any lumps or areas of abnormal tissue harder to spot. Younger women tend to have denser breasts. As you get older, the amount of glandular tissue in your breasts decreases and is replaced by fat, so your breasts become less dense.

Exposure to oestrogen

In some cases, breast cancer cells can be stimulated to grow by the female hormone oestrogen. Your ovaries, where your eggs are stored, begin to produce oestrogen when you start puberty in order to regulate your periods.

Your risk of developing breast cancer may rise slightly with the amount of oestrogen your body is exposed to. For example, if you started your periods at a young age and entered menopause at a late age, you will have been exposed to oestrogen over a longer period. In the same way, not having children, or having children later in life, may slightly increase your risk of developing breast cancer because your exposure to oestrogen is uninterrupted by pregnancy.

 

Being overweight or obese

If you have been through the menopause and are overweight or obese, you may be more at risk of developing breast cancer. This is thought to be linked to the amount of oestrogen in your body, as being overweight or obese after the menopause causes more oestrogen to be produced.

Being tall

If you are taller than average, you are more likely to develop breast cancer than someone who is shorter than average. This may be due to interactions between genes, nutrition and hormones but the reason is not fully understood.

Alcohol

Your risk of developing breast cancer can increase with the amount of alcohol you drink. Research shows that, for every 200 women who regularly have two alcoholic drinks a day, there are three more women with breast cancer compared with women who do not drink at all.