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The outlook for kidney cancer patients 

Kidney cancer, also called renal cancer, is one of the most common types of cancer in the UK.

It usually affects adults in their 60s or 70s and is rare in people under 50. It can often be cured if it’s caught early. But a cure probably won’t be possible if it’s not diagnosed until after it has spread beyond the kidney. In many cases, there are no obvious symptoms at first and kidney cancer may only be picked up during tests carried out for another reason. If symptoms do occur, they can include blood in your pee (you may notice your pee is darker than normal or reddish in colour), a persistent pain in your lower back or side, just below your ribs and/or a lump or swelling in your side (although kidney cancer is often too small to feel). Although it’s unlikely you have cancer, it’s important to get your symptoms checked out. Your GP will ask about your symptoms and may test a sample of your urine to see if it contains blood or an infection. If necessary, they can refer you to a hospital specialist for further tests to find out what the problem is.

The treatment for kidney cancer depends on the size of the cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. The main treat-ments are surgery to remove part or all of the affected kidney (this is the main treatment for most people), cryotherapy or radiofrequency ablation –(where the cancerous cells are destroyed by freezing or heating), biological therapies (medications that help stop the cancer growing or spreading), em-bolisation (a procedure to cut off the blood supply to the cancer) or radiotherapy which involves using high-energy radiation to target cancer cells and relieve symptoms. The outlook for kidney cancer largely depends on how big the tumour is and how far it has spread by the time it’s diagnosed.

If the cancer is still small and hasn’t spread beyond the kidney, surgery can often cure it. Some small, slow growing cancers may not need treat-ment at first.

A cure isn’t usually possible if the cancer has spread, although treatment can sometimes help keep it under control. Some people become ill quickly, but others may live for several years and feel well despite their cáncer.